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Anatomy of the eye


A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of your eye which often progresses gradually, compromising vision more and more as time goes on.

A cataract can develop in one or both eyes. As a person ages, cataracts often occur as the result of proteins clumping together on the eye’s crystalline lens, leading to the cloudy visual effect.

Anyone can develop cataracts but they are seen more often as people get older.  Other risk factors for cataracts include diabetes, eye injuries, previous eye surgery, steroid use, smoking, inflammation and family history of cataracts.



Glaucoma is a group eye conditions which all have in common damage to the optic nerve, that is the nerve connecting the eye to the brain.  Glaucoma is the number one cause of irreversible vision loss around the world, affecting over 60 million people.

Inside the eye, there is a clear fluid which provides nourishment. This fluid is constantly produced and circulated through the eye’s drainage channel, or angle, into the bloodstream and back into the eye.

Glaucoma occurs when this fluid is not able to pass through the drainage channel adequately resulting in pressure build-up inside the eye. This increased eye pressure compromises the blood flow to the optic nerve and can result in permanent vision loss in one or both eyes.

Anyone can develop glaucoma but the condition may be seen more often as people get older. Other risk factors include family history of glaucoma, diabetes, nearsighted people and people of color.


Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is the result of damage to the retina and retinal blood vessels from a systemic disease, most commonly diabetes.

The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances are of developing diabetic retinopathy which can cause loss of vision. Severe cases of diabetic retinopathy can be reduced through proper treatment and monitoring of patients with diabetes.

Diabetic retinopathy can be diagnosed during a dilated eye exam.  Common features that may be seen inside the eye include bleeding, swelling and leaking blood vessels.



A Pterygium is a wedge-shaped whitish growth on the front of the eye, extending onto the cornea. Pterygia are often associated with increased exposure to sunlight and dust. They may become irritated, red and inflamed and can affect your vision.


Age related Macular Degeneration

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) affects older adults and occurs when the small central portion of the retina, known as the macula, deteriorates. The macula is the part of the eye that enables us to see directly in front of us. Although AMD is almost never a totally blinding condition, it can be a source of significant visual disability. Some patients may be asymptomatic in Dry AMD while others may experience distorted vision, in which straight lines appear wavy, in Wet AMD.

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GreenEye Glaucoma Institute

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